Corn protection

Bioprotection of plants as a mechanism for implementing the requirements of the Law.

Relations in the field of plant protection are regulated by the laws of Ukraine "On Plant Protection", "On Pesticides and Agrochemicals" and "On Plant Quarantine"

The main principles of state policy in the field of activities related to pesticides and agrochemicals are the minimization of the use of pesticides due to the introduction of biological means of plant protection and other ecologically safe, non-chemical methods of plant protection.

The use of biological means of plant protection ensures the minimization of the content of residual amounts of agrochemicals and heavy metals in agricultural products. The biomethod is implemented by organizing timely measures for plant protection, compliance with regulations for the use of plant protection products.

The main biological plant protection agent is Trichogram. Trichogramma is a beneficial entomophagous insect of microscopic size, bred in laboratory conditions from the egg of a scoop and stem butterfly. Trichograma is applied by air distribution with the help of rural aviation. After applying a biological plant protection agent - Trichogramma, the Trichogramma insect finds the deposited eggs of pests (scoot, stem butterfly) and refertilizes them.

Proceeding from the socially beneficial purpose and control and management activity, we, the Center for Innovative Biotechnologies "BIOTECH", take an active position to popularize biological means of plant protection in order to implement the principles of the Legislation of Ukraine.

Trichogramma is the main means of biological control of harmful insects in open ground.

The entomophagous insect of microscopic size (size 0.4-0.9 mm) with color from yellow to black is able to destroy pests in the egg phase.

Stem butterfly - common in the forest-steppe, steppe zones and the southern part of the taiga zone. It develops in 1-4 generations. The most dangerous are the caterpillars of the first generation of the pest. It manifests its harmfulness during periods of increase in numbers and mass reproduction, which occur cyclically in 10-12 years. Caterpillars damage leaves, less often stems. Butterflies need nectar to start laying eggs. Adults can fly tens of kilometers in search of food and egg-laying places. Development depends on the temperature and the amount of precipitation during the periods of feeding caterpillars, development of pupae, flight of butterflies. During the wintering period, caterpillars can withstand low temperatures up to -40 ° C. The number of pests depends on the activity of entomophages (parasites and predators) and entomopathogenic. Caterpillars prefer to feed on littered plants. Caterpillars of the 3rd age can feed on cultivated plants if there are no weeds.

It reduces the yield up to 60%, sometimes causes 100% plant death. The greatest damage is caused to sugar beets, perennial legumes, sunflowers, peas, hemp, corn, vegetable plants; can damage barley, wheat, sorghum, potatoes.

Caterpillars of the stem butterfly after rebirth from eggs live on the surface of the plant from 3 to 12 hours, then bite into the stems, which practically nullifies the use of chemicals. Therefore, it is necessary to fight this pest at the egg-laying stage by releasing Trichogramma on corn crops

With timely and correct application of the trichogram, its effectiveness is quite high. On sugar beets and vegetable crops, the destruction of pest eggs reaches 75-80%, the efficiency is somewhat lower on corn, which is related to the biological features of the stem butterfly, but at the rate of 200,000 individuals per hectare, the efficiency of its action can be achieved up to 80%. So, as we can see, the protection of corn with the help of biomethods can be very successful.

The experience of using the trichogram shows that the biological effectiveness of destroying the pest.

- On corn and sunflower, it is 65-70% and preserves the yield by 5-7 t/ha;

- For sugar and fodder roots, the efficiency of use is 75% and the yield is 35-40 t/ha.

Therefore, Trichograma should be used for: protection of corn from pests, protection of sunflowers from pests.

If plant bioprotection, then - Trichograma.